The oldest evidence of habitation in the Caves takes the form of a fine collection of stone age tools, ranging in date from Early Stone Age (from 2,5 million years ago) to Late Stone Age (up to a few thousand years BC). These tools are on display at the Caves’ entrance. The University of Tshwane’s Department of Archaeology is currently busy with excavations and research.
The Caves were used as shelter by Prehistoric man in the form of Homo habilis (Handyman), a predecessor of Homo erectus, approximately 1,8 million years ago. Habilis had smaller cheek teeth and larger front teeth than modern humans, a similar skeleton, though shorter, and a relatively large brain.
All Sudwala Cave Tours are conducted in either a 7 seater, air-conditioned, “kombi” type vehicle, or in a 13 seater air conditioned Toyota Quantum type vehicle, subject to vehicle availability on the day.
The Sudwala caves are the oldest known caves in the world. They are situated in Pre-Cambrian dolomite rocks which are sedimentary and were laid down approximately 3 800 million years ago, when Africa was still part on Gondwanaland.
The dolomite is thus a marine deposit formed from chemical precipitation when the Lowveld area was covered by warm shallow seas. Well-represented in the caves are fossils of the blue green algae, Collenia, which was one of the first oxygen producing plants on the earth.